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Research Article |

Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) and Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT) in Cooperative Learning

Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a teaching strategy that promotes learning and socialization. In contrast to the traditional classroom, the teacher in a cooperative learning setting is no longer the director of instruction but the facilitator of learning. The students are responsible for their own learning while the teacher models strategies and provides scaffolding to support students’ thinking until they are ready to learn and work on their own This paper, on the basis of the theories and researches that have been done on cooperative learning, will have an overview of this field with emphasis on two cooperative learning approaches----Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD), Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT). These techniques are successful in the perspective of motivation in the classroom. In addition, the issues involved in each method and the teaching implications were discussed. For instance, the problems classroom teachers may face when using these methods and the possible solutions to such problems. Finally, an attempt is made to explore some unresolved issues in cooperative learning. This paper concludes that cooperative learning has the potential to become a primary teaching approach to achieving various goals. However, there is a need for more research on the conditions necessary for success in cooperative learning.

Cooperative Learning, STAD, TGT, Teaching Implication

Li Pei-qi. (2023). Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) and Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT) in Cooperative Learning . Education Journal, 12(5), 231-234.

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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